LIFE CYCLE


LIFE CYCLE
The Jewish cemetery in Prague, where some of the headstones date from the 14th century. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. The Jewish cemetery in Prague, where some of the headstones date from the 14th century. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   FOR A JEW THE STAGES OF LIFE ARE ACCOMPANIED BY VARIOUS RITUALS AND CEREMONIES, FROM BIRTH THROUGH EDUCATION AND BAR/BAT MITZVAH TO MARRIAGE AND FAMILY TO DEATH. ITEMS MAY RELATE TO AN INDIVIDUAL, SUCH AS BIRTH AMULETS, TEFILLIN BAGS, AND DOWRIES, OR TO THE COMMUNITY, SUCH AS THE ḤEVRA KADDISHA (BURIAL SOCIETY) APPURTENANCES. THE LOCALE OF EACH COMMUNITY INFLUENCED THE MATERIALS AND STYLES REFLECTED IN THE VARIOUS OBJECTS AND EVENTS SHOWN HERE.   Copy of reliefs on tombstones in the Jewish cemetery in Curaao, Netherlands Antilles, 1980. Generally, the decoration related to the name of the person buried. Copy of reliefs on tombstones in the Jewish cemetery in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, 1980. Generally, the decoration related to the name of the person buried. For example, the decoration on the tombstone of Eliau Namias De Orasto, center, represents the name Elijah—a chariot of fire ascending to heaven. On the right, the motif of the felled tree indicates a man who died in his prime. The portrayal of ships shows that the man was a sailor or was engaged in commerce. Photo: Micha Bar-Am, Israel. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv and courtesy of Mordechai Arbell, Israel.   A funeral in Prague. Lowering the body into the gravefrom a series of oil paintings commissioned by the Prague evra kaddisha. Jewish Museum, Prague. A funeral in Prague. Lowering the body into the grave—from a series of oil paintings commissioned by the Prague ḥevra kaddisha. Jewish Museum, Prague.     Burial Society glass, Prague, Bohemia, 1713. Glass, enamel, and paint; 24.5 15.7cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Yoram Lehmann. Burial Society glass, Prague, Bohemia, 1713. Glass, enamel, and paint; 24.5 × 15.7cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Yoram Lehmann.     Gold filigree birth amulet set with rubies and diamonds, Italian or English, mid 19th century. Jewish Museum, London. Gold filigree birth amulet set with rubies and diamonds, Italian or English, mid 19th century.. Jewish Museum, London     Abraham and the Three Angels (Fol.165), who came to inform Abraham of the pending birth of Isaac. From the Rothschild Miscellany, Northern Italy, c. 14501480. Vellum, pen and ink, tempera, and gold leaf., who came to inform Abraham of the pending birth of Isaac. From the Rothschild Miscellany, Northern Italy, c. 14501480. Vellum, pen and ink, tempera, and gold leaf.") Abraham and the Three Angels (Fol.165), who came to inform Abraham of the pending birth of Isaac. From the Rothschild Miscellany, Northern Italy, c. 1450–1480. Vellum, pen and ink, tempera, and gold leaf. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.     Costume for a girls name-giving ceremony (Las Fadas), Salonika, Macedonia, early 20th century. Silk, tulle, and silk-thread embroidery. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris., Salonika, Macedonia, early 20th century. Silk, tulle, and silk-thread embroidery. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.") Costume for a girl's name-giving ceremony (Las Fadas), Salonika, Macedonia, early 20th century. Silk, tulle, and silk-thread embroidery. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.   Sephardi infants circumcision costume, Istanbul, Turkey, late 19th century. Cotton and lace, metal-thread embroidery. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Gift of Eda Amon, Istanbul. Sephardi infant's circumcision costume, Istanbul, Turkey, late 19th century. Cotton and lace, metal-thread embroidery. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Gift of Eda Amon, Istanbul. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.     A mohel performs performs a brit milah, or circumcision, in a Jerusalem synagogue, 1994. Bojan BreceljCorbis. A mohel performs performs a brit milah, or circumcision, in a Jerusalem synagogue, 1994. © Bojan Brecelj/Corbis.     Red velvet and bright flowers on a circumcision cushion; embroidered by Simcha Janiver-Diskin, Jerusalem, 1898. Dr. David Darom. Red velvet and bright flowers on a circumcision cushion; embroidered by Simcha Janiver-Diskin, Jerusalem, 1898. © Dr. David Darom.   Circumcision set, Holland, 1827 and 1866. Box: Silver filigree, cast and hammered; inlaid with semi-precious stones. Utensils: Silver filigree, cast and hammered; mother-of-pearl, carved. Box 9.5 7.375 4.125 (24. Circumcision set, Holland, 1827 and 1866. Box: Silver filigree, cast and hammered; inlaid with semi-precious stones. Utensils: Silver filigree, cast and hammered; mother-of-pearl, carved. Box 9.5 × 7.375 × 4.125" (24.1 × 18.7 × 10.5 cm). The Jewish Museum, New York. The H. Ephraim and Mordecai Benguiat Family Collection.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 8 GOS–HEP FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department <address> Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 </address> Permissions Hotline: (+1) 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: (+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries BA–BLO 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 817 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 818 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 824 • Transliteration Rules 837 Glossary 840 GOSHEN GOSHEN (Heb. גֹּשֶׁןa), a grazing area in the N.E. of lower Egypt, east of the delta. Goshen was the residence assigned to Jacob and his family, and it was there that the Israelites lived in Egypt (Gen. 45:10; Ex. 9:26). It is currently assumed that the name is derived from the Semitic root גוש, i.e., compact, solid, and fertile land, suitable for grazing and certain types of cultivation. In the Bible Goshen is described as "the best part of the land" of Egypt (Gen. 47:6). It is also called "the land of Rameses" (Gen. 47:11) and it was probably identical with or not far from the "field of Zoan" (Tanis; Ps. 78:12, 43), the name of the Egyptian capital during the hyksos period. The Septuagint (Gen. 46:28) renders Goshen as Heroonpolis (i.e., pithom , Ex. 1:11), and once (Gen. 46:34) as "the Arab land of Gesem." Therefore it is generally assumed that Goshen is to be located in Wādi Tumeilāt, which stretches from the eastern arm of the Nile to the Great Bitter Lake and is known to be excellent pasture land. Support for this identification is found in a papyrus (Pritchard, Texts, 259) from the end of the 13th century B.C.E. which describes how nomadic shepherds moved from the land of Edom, past the Merneptah fortress in Teku to the wells of Pithom in order to keep themselves and their cattle alive (cf. Gen. 45:10; 47:4). Teku is Wādi Tumeilāt. The rulers of Egypt would therefore seem to have permitted nomadic Semitic tribes to come to Goshen and graze there. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Montet, in: RB, 39 (1930), 5ff.; W.F. Albright, in: BASOR, 109 (1948), 15; 140 (1955), 30–31; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan (1968), 79, 134; H.H. Rowley, From Joseph to Joshua (1950), index; H. Kees, Ancient Egypt (1961), index, S.V. Wadi Tumilat. (Pinhas Artzi)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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